Baroque style or Baroque architecture began to develop in the late 16th century. Baroque emerged as a result of the development of the Protestantism movement. The Catholic Church at that time wanted church architecture to be the message media that the church wanted to convey in a more dramatic way. Art in the Baroque era must be related to themes that are religious and full of emotion.
Baroque architecture shows grandeur and power, so that people at that time are submissive and obedient to morarki and the church. The architecture is identical to the design that is excessive, dramatic and detached from the rules. Buildings built during the Baroque period have an emphasis on pillars, domes, contrasting light, paintings on the ceiling of buildings, and 3-dimensional effects produced from sculptures.
The most distinguishing style of Baroque architecture is dynamism or movement. Concave and convex walls create motion or movement in the building. In contrast to Renaissance architecture that uses flat architecture on the surface of a building, Baroque architecture provides a three-dimensional effect with many sculptures on its surface.
Baroque architecture can be said to be a continuation of Renaissance architecture. The architectural styles that exist from both have similarities, such as the use of domes and pillars. However, during the Renaissance, architects and artists did not have the freedom to create their works, because at that time there were standard rules that limited their movements, while Baroque artists and architects had more freedom.
The Baroque era is divided into three parts, namely early Baroque, Baroque high, and late Baroque. Baroque began to develop in Italy from the early Baroque to the Baroque high, and ended in France starting from late Baroque to the appearance of the Rococo style.
Baroque style looks more dynamic with curved corners of the building, rotating pillars, ceilings filled with frescoes (wall paintings), sculptures, and the use of dramatic light that immediately highlights artwork in the church to make it look theatrical.
The two most famous names in Baroque architecture are Bernini and Borromini. One of the most famous is San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini, located in Rome, Italy. San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane which was built in 1638 is a Catholic church also called The Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains. This church is one of the iconic examples of Baroque architectural style because it has a very complicated design.
The most famous work of Gian Lorenzo Bernini in the world today is The St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican. This place was designed by Bernini under the supervision of Pope Alexander VII and made with a wide front yard with the aim that all people from all over the world who come can see the Pope from the front of the church to the Vatican palace window (Norwich 1975, p. 175) . In the middle of it stands an obelisk from ancient Egypt that was built in 1586 by Domenico Fontana.